1 So I exhort the presbyters 2 among you, as a fellow presbyter and witness to the sufferings of Christ and one who has a share in the glory to be revealed.
Tend the flock of God in your midst, (overseeing) not by constraint but willingly, as God would have it, not for shameful profit but eagerly.
Do not lord it over those assigned to you, but be examples to the flock.
And when the chief Shepherd is revealed, you will receive the unfading crown of glory. 3
4 Likewise, you younger members, 5 be subject to the presbyters. And all of you, clothe yourselves with humility in your dealings with one another, for: «God opposes the proud but bestows favor on the humble.»
So humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time.
Cast all your worries upon him because he cares for you.
Be sober and vigilant. Your opponent the devil is prowling around like a roaring lion looking for (someone) to devour.
Resist him, steadfast in faith, knowing that your fellow believers throughout the world undergo the same sufferings.
The God of all grace who called you to his eternal glory through Christ (Jesus) will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you after you have suffered a little.
To him be dominion forever. Amen.
I write you this briefly through Silvanus, 6 whom I consider a faithful brother, exhorting you and testifying that this is the true grace of God. Remain firm in it.
The chosen one 7 at Babylon sends you greeting, as does Mark, my son.
Greet one another with a loving kiss. Peace to all of you who are in Christ.
1 [1-4] In imitation of Christ, the chief shepherd, those entrusted with a pastoral office are to tend the flock by their care and example.
2  Presbyters: the officially appointed leaders and teachers of the Christian community (cf ⇒ 1 Tim 5:17-18; ⇒ Titus 1:5-8; ⇒ James 5:14).
3  See the note on ⇒ 1 Peter 2:25.
4 [5-11] The community is to be subject to the presbyters and to show humility toward one another and trust in God’s love and care (⇒ 1 Peter 5:5-7). With sobriety, alertness, and steadfast faith they must resist the evil one; their sufferings are shared with Christians everywhere (⇒ 1 Peter 5:8-9). They will be strengthened and called to eternal glory (⇒ 1 Peter 5:10-11).
5  Younger members: this may be a designation for office-holders of lesser rank.
6  Silvanus: the companion of Paul (see ⇒ 2 Cor 1:19; ⇒ 1 Thes 1:1; ⇒ 2 Thes 1:1). Jews and Jewish Christians, like Paul, often had a Hebrew name (Saoul, Silas) and a Greek or Latin name (Paul, Silvanus). On Silvanus’s possible role as amanuensis, see Introduction.
7  The chosen one: feminine, referring to the Christian community (ekklesia) at Babylon, the code name for Rome in ⇒ Rev 14:8; ⇒ 17:5; ⇒ 18:2. Mark, my son: traditionally a prominent disciple of Peter and co-worker at the church in Rome, perhaps the John Mark referred to in ⇒ Acts 12:12, ⇒ 25; ⇒ 13:5, ⇒ 13; and in ⇒ Acts 15:37-39, a companion of Barnabas. Perhaps this is the same Mark mentioned as Barnabas’s cousin in ⇒ Col 4:10, a co-worker with Paul in ⇒ Philippians 1:24 (see also ⇒ 2 Tim 4:11).
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